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الثلاثاء، نوفمبر 22، 2011

Irritants - CS, CN, CNC, CA, CR, CNB, PS Medication

Update 1: 
Irritants - CS, CN, CNC, CA, CR, CNB, PS Read more

Update 2: Other posts about tear gas, clinical effects, management and protection

Pre-hospital Care

No antidote exists to reverse the effects of exposure.

Most people exposed to pulmonary irritants do not seek medical care, and effects are self-limited.
 
When patients seek care, first withdraw them from exposure. 

Then, decontaminate patients.
 
Acceptable decontaminating solutions are water or soap and water.
 
Do not use hypochlorite. This relatively caustic solution may worsen the condition of skin injuries already suffered from exposure to irritants.
 
Devote specific attention to very young, infirm, and elderly patients since their responses to these agents may be significant.
 
Warn patients that the pain worsens during decontamination.

Emergency Department Care

Medication Summary

In general, only decontamination with water is necessary when a patient's skin has become grossly exposed. Bronchodilators, analgesics, and pulmonary support may be needed depending upon the severity of injury.

No antidote exists. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive.

Initiate or continue care in the emergency department as discussed above.
 
Proper personal protection equipment (PPE) should be donned in order to minimize accidental exposure.
 
A site should be established for the disrobing and general decontamination of the patients.
 
Flush the eyes of patients with eye complaints with normal saline or water to remove any particulate matter before fluorescein slit lamp examination for corneal abrasion.
 
Treat more severe injuries, which occur in fewer than 1% of patients, in the usual fashion.
 
Corneal abrasions can be treated with local antibiotics, oral analgesics, and close follow-up care.
 
The rare eye foreign body may merit ophthalmologic consultation.
 
Treat burns based on the severity and location of injury.
 
The patient with significant respiratory damage is rare and may require oxygen supplementation, bronchodilator therapy (if bronchospasm is present), and admission to the hospital, possibly a critical care unit.

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w7l يقول...

nice article

:)

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